Denkurian Pronouns

While the case endings of pronouns are similar to those of nouns (usually shorter), they usually form their plurals in ways distinct from those of nouns. Usually, pronouns and determiners take their plurals with a suffix -i.

Personal Pronouns

person/gender/ numbernominativeaccusativegenitivedativeinstrumentalpossessive
1sgNtetestektevtedteke
1sgMtutustuktuvtudtuke
1sgFtatastaktavtadtake
2sgNchecheschekchevchedcheke
2sgMchuchuschukchuvchudchuke
2sgFchachaschakchavchadchake
3sgN.ANIMinenesneknevnedneke
3sgM.ANIMinunusnuknuvnudnuke
3sgF.ANIMinanasnaknavnadnake
3sgN.INANathothos*thokthovthodthoke
3sgM.INANathuthus*thukthuvthudthuke
3sgF.INANathathas*thakthavthadthake
3 Indef. “one/people/they”atheathesathekathevathedatheke
1pldaidesdekdevdeddaike
2plfaifesfekfevfedfaike
3plN.ANIMilenlisliklivlidlike
3plM.ANIMilutloisloikloivloidloike
3plF.ANIMilarlaislaiklaivlaidlaike
3plN.INAMathithis*thikthivthidthike
3plM.INAMathoithois*thoikthoivthoidthoike
3plF.INAMathaithais*thaikthaivthaidthaike
3sg.reflexivemesmekmevmedmeke
3pl.reflexivemismikmivmidmike
reciprocalvisvikvivvidvike

For the nominative forms that come in pairs, the first (long) form is usually more emphatic. Personal pronouns of any form may be made more emphatic by being followed by the pronoun pare which agrees with its preceding pronoun in case, gender, and number.  

*When the 3p inanimage pronouns appear in the accusative case along witha  personal pronoun in the dative case, they appear as a clipped form without the initial th- and attached hypenated to the end of the dative pronoun: chev thos > chev-os “it to you”

Possession

The possessive forms can be used as standalone pronouns, determiners that precede the possessed noun, or in conjunction with an article and following the noun.

Nite ban teke nyaf.* / Nite ban se nyaf teke.

this-NEUT be-3SG my-NEUT cat.NEUT / this-NEUT be-3SG  the-NEUT cat.NEUT  my-NEUT

“This is my cat.”

*This is the most common use of the possessive determiner

Nite nyaf ban teke.

this-NEUT cat.NEUT be-3SG my-NEUT 

“This cat is mine.”

Articles

Definite Article: se – “the”

nominativeaccusativegenitivedativeinstrumental
N.SGsesesseksevsed
M.SGsusussuksuvsud
F.SGsasassaksavsad
N.PLsisissiksivsid
M.PLsoisoissoiksoivsoid
F.PLsaisaissaiksaivsaid

Indefinite article: yage – “a, an, some”

Negative article: vege – “no”

Partitive article: eske – “some (of the)”

The indefinite, negative, and partitive articles are declined as the definite article. The indefinite, negative, and partitive articles can also function as standalone pronouns.

Demonstratives/Other pronouns

Subordinating conjunction/complementizer: gos (“that”) [historically related to the stem of the inanimate demonstratives *g- + accusative -s]

Comparative conjunction: god (“than”) [historically related to the stem of the inanimate demonstratives *g- + instrumental -d]

“Whose” – peke (interrogative, from pe); weke/wuke/wake; opeke/opuke/opake; opegeke/opeguke/opegake (relative, from we, ope, opege respectively)

The above demonstratives and other pronouns also decline like the articles.

*There are three relative pronouns, we, ope, opege. we and ope are equivalent, and opege is a bit more formal. Ope and opege are derived from prefixing o- to interrogative pronouns

**Neuter relative pronoun wo/opo/opego for abstract ideas, concepts, or entire phrases/clauses

*Source ending from genitive -k

**Goal ending is from the dative -v

***Manner and reason endings are related to the instrumental -d and dative -v endings respectively.

Several of the forms above have alternative forms. Usually the longer form is for emphasis.