Denkurian Pronouns

Denkurian Pronouns

While the case endings of pronouns are similar to those of nouns (usually shorter), they usually form their plurals in ways distinct from those of nouns. Usually, pronouns and determiners take their plurals with a suffix -i.

Personal Pronouns

person/gender/ numbernominativeaccusativedativegenitiveinstrumentalpossessive
1sgNtetestemtevtedteve
1sgMtutustumtuvtudtuve
1sgFtatastamtavtadtave
2sgNchecheschemchevchedcheve
2sgMchuchuschumchuvchudchuve
2sgFchachaschamchavchadchave
3sgN.ANIMininisnimnivnidnive
3sgM.ANIMinunusnumnuvnudnuve
3sgF.ANIMinanasnamnavnadnave
3sgN.INANathithis*thimthivthidthive
3sgM.INANathuthus*thumthuvthudthuve
3sgF.INANathathas*thamthavthadthave
3 Indef. “one/people/they”athoathosathomathovathodathove
1pl/excldaidesdemdevdeddaive
1pl/inclchedaichedeschedemchedevchededchedaive
2plfaifesfemfevfedfaive
3plN.ANIMilailaislaimlaivlaidlaive
3plM.ANIMiloiloisloimloivloidloive
3plF.ANIMileleslemlevledleve
3plN.INAMathaithais*thaimthaivthaidthave
3plM.INAMathoithois*thoimthoivthoidthoive
3plF.INAMathethes*themthevthedtheve
3sg.reflexivememesmemmevmedmeve
3pl.reflexivemimismimmivmidmive
reciprocalvisvimvivvidvive

For the nominative forms that come in pairs, the first (long) form is usually more emphatic. Personal pronouns of any form may be made more emphatic by being followed by the pronoun pare which agrees with its preceding pronoun in case, gender, and number.  

*When the 3p inanimage pronouns appear in the accusative case along witha  personal pronoun in the dative case, they appear as a clipped form without the initial th- and attached hypenated to the end of the dative pronoun: chem this > chem-is “it to you”

Possession

The possessive forms can be used as standalone pronouns, determiners that precede the possessed noun, or in conjunction with an article and following the noun.

Neti ban teve nyaf.* / Neti ban se nyaf teve.

this-NEUT be-3SG my-NEUT cat.NEUT / this-NEUT be-3SG  the-NEUT cat.NEUT  my-NEUT

“This is my cat.”

*This is the most common use of the possessive determiner

Nite nyaf ban teve.

this-NEUT cat.NEUT be-3SG my-NEUT 

“This cat is mine.”

Articles

Definite Article: se – “the”

nominativeaccusativedativegenitiveinstrumental
N.SGsisissimsivsid
M.SGsusussumsuvsud
F.SGsasassamsavsad
N.PLsaisaissaivsaivsaid
M.PLsoisoissoimsoivsoid
F.PLsesessemsevsed

Indefinite article: yagi – “a, an, some”

Negative article: vegi – “no”

Partitive article: eski – “some (of the)”

The indefinite, negative, and partitive articles are declined as the definite article. The indefinite, negative, and partitive articles can also function as standalone pronouns.

Demonstratives/Other pronouns

Subordinating conjunction/complementizer: gos (“that”) [historically related to the stem of the inanimate demonstratives *g- + accusative -s]

Comparative conjunction: god (“than”) [historically related to the stem of the inanimate demonstratives *g- + instrumental -d]

“Whose” – pevi (interrogative, from pe); wivi/wuvi/wavi; opevi; opegive/opeguve/opegave (relative, from we, ope, opegi respectively)

The above demonstratives and other pronouns also decline like the articles.

*There are three relative pronouns, wi, ope, opegi. wi and ope are equivalent, and opegi is a bit more formal. Ope and opegi are derived from prefixing o- to interrogative pronouns**Neuter relative pronoun wo/opo/opego for abstract ideas, concepts, or entire phrases/clauses

*Source ending from genitive -v

**Goal ending is from the dative -m

***Manner and reason endings are related to the instrumental -d and dative -n endings respectively.

Several of the forms above have alternative forms. Usually the longer form is for emphasis.