Denkurian Nouns

Nouns come in three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine and neuter; 5 cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and instrumental; and 2 numbers: singular and plural. For agreement purposes with certain pronouns, nouns can also be animate or inanimate. People and animals are animate, with things and concepts being inanimate. For these pronouns, animate and inanimate nouns have different stems. In addition to the cases detailed below, there is a vocative, formed with the particle u followed by the nominative form of the noun.  Nouns form their plural by final vowel apophony (alternation), from a historic plural marker *-i. Case is marked by a final suffix.

Noun gender by ending

GenderEndings
neuter-i, -e, -o, –C*
masculine-u, -e, -o, –C*
feminine-a, -e, -o, –C*
*-C being any consonant

Noun gender by ending

GenderEndings
neuter-i, -e, -o, -C*
masculine-u, -e, -o, -C
feminine-a, -e, -o, -C

*-C being any consonant

Noun stems singular and plural forms

singularplural
-a-e
-e*-i
-i-ai
-o-i
-u-oi

*e-stem nouns sometimes end in a consonant in the nominative singular

Case suffixes

nominative
accusative-s
dative-m
genitive-v
instrumental-d

zifa (f.) – door

CaseSingularPlural
nominativezifazife
accusativezifaszifes
dativezifamzifem
genitivezifavzifev
instrumentalzifadzifed

zifa (f.) – door

CaseSingularPlural
nominativezifazifar
accusativezifaszifares
dativezifavzifarev
genitivezifakzifarek
instrumentalzifadzifared

Natural gender

For human beings, sentient creatures and larger mammals, grammatical gender typically aligns with natural gender. There are several patterns for indicating gender. Here is an example: nyaf/nyafog/nyafich cat, male cat, female cat. For gender variable nouns of all types, the citation form is the neuter singular nominative form.

neutermasculinefeminine
-i-u-a
-og-ich